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Vietnam's Green Growth Strategy for 2021-2030, vision 2050 and related PM Decisions

legislation type Executive
Strategy
Passed in 2021
The Strategy for 2021-2030 was approved by Deputy Prime Minister decision No. 1658/QD-TTg. This document aims at accomplishing green growth, contributing to the restructuring of the economy in conjunction with renewing the growth model, in order to achieve economic prosperity, environmental sustainability and social equality; strive towards a green and carbon neutral economy; contribute to the realisation of the goal to reduce global warming. It sets a number of economy-wide and sectoral targets.

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The strategy for 2014-2020 was implemented through Decision 1393/QD-TTg. Green growth is a means to achieve a low carbon economy and to enrich Vietnam's natural capital through sustainable development. It notes that GHG emissions and removals are gradually becoming essential indicators in social-economic development, and attempts to normalise this within Vietnam's development framework.
 
 The central pillars of the programme are
 - Low Carbon Growth
 - Greening of Production
 - Greening of Lifestyles
 
 The strategy includes the development of tax incentives for high-technology, scientific research and technology development firms in the environment sector. They will pay 10% tax, a discount against the baseline 25% tax rate, for the first 15 years of operation.
 
 Further incentives come from import tax exemptions to encourage the import and use of technology related to environmental monitoring, analysis and the development of clean energy. In addition, taxation will be increased on water exploitation, from 1% to 3% for the exploitation of surface water, and 3% to 8% for the exploitation of groundwater.
 
 The strategy contains numerous targets.
 For 2020:
 - GDP per capita doubled compared to 2010
 - Reduce energy consumption per unit of GDP by 1.5-2% per year
 - Reduce intensity of GHG emissions per unit of GDP by 8-10% or double the target with international support
 For 2030:
 - Reduce total GHG emissions by at least 1% per year without and 2% with international support.
 - Environmental degradation is addressed and natural capital stocks are to be improved while access to and use of clean and green technology is significantly enhanced.
 For 2050:
 - Vietnam has mainstreamed Green Economic Development.

The PM Decision No.403/2014 approved the  National Action Plan on Green growth in Vietnam for the Period of 2014-2020.  Green Growth Action Plan in Vietnam is composed of 4 main themes, 12 groups of activities and 66 specific activities. 
The four main themes are: 1) to set up institutions and formulate green growth action plans at the local level; 2) to reduce the intensity of GHG emissions and promote the use of clean and renewable sources of energy: 3) greening the production; 4) greening lifestyle and promoting sustainable consumption.

The PM Decision No. 965/2015 introduces the natural resources and environment action program for the implementation of the national green growth strategy for the period 2015-2020 with vision to 2030. 
The objectives of the program are the following: 1) to implement the objectives set out in the national green growth strategy, assist the restructuration and improvement of economic institutions to reach the goal of greening the existing industries; 2) to make a contribution towards the objective of reducing GHG emissions and respond to climate changes; 3) to prevent and eliminate the increasing tendency for environmental pollution, natural resources degradation and biodiversity decline. 

The PM Decision No.1670/2017 approves the Program on Response to Climate Change and Green Growth for the 2016-2020 period. The objectives of the program are the following: 1) to set out solutions to adapt to the impacts of climate change and mitigation of GHG emissions; 2) to restructure and perfect economic institutions to be able to greening existing sectors; 3) to implement the National Strategy on Climate Change, the National Strategy on Green Growth; etc. 

Documents

  • Reduce energy consumption per unit of GDP by 1.5-2% per year by 2020 against a 2010 baseline
    Energy | Intensity target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2010
  • Reduce total GHG emissions by at least 1% per year without and 2% with international support by 2030 against a 2010 baseline
    Economy-wide | Trajectory target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2010
  • Reduce GHG emission by 1.5-2% per year by 2030, 2050 against a 2010 baseline
    Economy-wide | Trajectory target | Target year: 2050 | Base year: 2010
  • Reduce GHG emissions from energy activities by 10% to 20% compared to the business as usual case by 2020 against a 2010 baseline
    Energy | Base year target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2010
  • Reduce GHG emissions in energy activities by 20 to 30% compared to business as usual by 2030 against a 2010 baseline
    Energy | Base year target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2010
  • Reduce intensity of GHG emissions per unit of GDP by 8-10% by 2020 against a 2010 baseline
    Energy | Intensity target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2010
  • Share of public transportation in large and medium cities reaching 35-45% by 2020
    Transportation | Fixed level target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2010
  • Target until 2030: The greenhouse gas emissions intensity per unit of GDP reduces at least by 15% compared to 2014.
    Target until 2050: The greenhouse gas emissions intensity per unit of GDP reduces at least by 30% compared to 2014.
    Economy-wide | Intensity target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2014

  • Key target until 2030: The Human Development Index exceeds 0.75; 100% of provinces and cities formulate and implement the Provincial-level Plan for the management of the air quality; the proportion of the population that uses sanitized and up to standards water (in compliance with the Ministry of Health’s regulations) reaches at least 70%. 


    Key target until 2050: The Human Development Index (HDI) exceeds 0.8. The proportion of the population that uses sanitized and up to standards water (in compliance with the Ministry of Health’s regulations) reaches at least 90%.

    Social development | Fixed level target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2021
  • Key target until 2030: The primary energy consumption per unit of GDP reduces by 1.0 – 1.5% annually on average for the 2021-2030 period.
    Key target until 2050: The primary energy consumption per unit of GDP reduces by 1.0% annually on average for each 10-year periods.
    Economy-wide | Intensity target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2022
  • 2030: the proportion of renewable energy in the total primary energy supply reaches 15 - 20%
    2050:  the proportion of renewable energy in the total primary energy supply reaches 25 – 30%
    Energy | Intensity target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2022
  • 2030: the digital economy accounts for 30% of the GDP
    2050: strive so that the digital economy accounts for 50% of the GDP
    Cross Cutting Area | Intensity target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2022
  • 2030: the forest cover remains stable at 42%
    2050:  the forest cover remains stable at 42 – 43%
    LULUCF | Fixed level target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2022
  • 2030: in at least 30% of the total irrigatable dryland crop area, advanced and water-saving irrigation methods shall be applied. 
    2050: in at least 60% of the total irrigatable dryland crop area, advanced and water-saving irrigation methods shall be applied.
    Agriculture | Fixed level target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2022
  • 2030: at least 10 urban areas ratify and implement the General scheme on developing urban areas of green growth with an orientation towards sustainable smart urban areas. 
    2050: at least 45 urban areas ratify and implement the General scheme on developing urban areas of green growth with an orientation towards sustainable smart urban areas.
    Urban | Fixed level target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2022
  • Key target until 2030: The rate of municipal solid waste that is collected and treated in compliance with the regulated standards reaches 95%; the proportion of municipal solid waste that is treated with the direct burial method accounts for only 10% of the waste collected; 

    Key target until 2050: The rate of solid waste that is collected and treated in compliance with national standards reaches 100%, while the burial of organic solid waste and recyclable waste are reduced to a minimum; 100% of urban areas have sewage systems that are synchronously built and refined so as to eliminate urban flooding 

    Waste | Intensity target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2022
  • 2030: the rate of green public procurement reaches at least 35% of the total public procurement; 
    2050:  the rate of green public procurement reaches at least 50% of the total public procurement;
    Public Sector | Intensity target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2022
  • 2030: the proportion of buses that use clean energy in special-class urban areas reaches at least 15% of the total number of buses in operation, in class-I urban areas this proportion reaches 10% of the number of new buses; 
    2050:  in special-class urban areas buses that use clean energy accounts for 100% of the total number of newly procured buses, in in class-I urban areas this rate is at least 40%
    Transport | Intensity target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2022
  • 2030: the rate of passenger transport undertaken by public transport in special-class and class-I urban areas reaches 20% and 5% respectively; 
    2050:  the rate of passenger transport under taken by public transport in special-class urban areas and class-I urban areas reaches at least 40% and 15% respectively;
    Transport | Intensity target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2022
  • 2030: the rate of municipal wastewater collected and treated in compliance with the regulated standards reaches more than 50% for class II or higher urban areas, and 20% for other types of urban areas; 
    2050: 100% of the treated wastewater must comply with regulated technical standards before being discharged into the receiving bodies
    Water | Intensity target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2022
from the Grantham Research Institute
from the Grantham Research Institute
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