Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam
The Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam was passed in 1992; it has since had two amends in 2001 and 2013. This Constitution replaced the former one in an effort to meet the demands of a more liberal global political and economic landscape following the market reforms adopted by the government at the beginning in 1986 and of the Soviet Union’s collapse. The current constitutional text provides for a climate provision within State obligations for environmental protection. The first paragraph of article 63 establishes that the State has to “take initiative” preventing and resisting natural calamities, as well as responding to climate change. This text reads as follows: “1. The State has a policy to protect the environment; manages, and effectively and stably use natural resources; protects the nature and biodiversity; takes initiative in prevention and resistance against natural calamities and response to climate change. 2. The State encourages all acts of protection of the environment, development and use of new energy and recycled energy. 3. Organizations and individuals who cause environmental pollution, debilitate natural resources and weaken biodiversity shall be strictly dealt with and must be responsible for remedy and compensation for damage”.