Uzbekistan is a presidential republic. The President is the head of state and the executive authority of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The president is elected by popular vote for a seven-year term and appoints the Prime minister and the Cabinet. The President issues decrees, enactments and ordinances binding on the entire territory on the basis of and for enforcement of the Constitution and the laws.
The bicameral national assembly exercises legislative power and consists of a 150-member lower chamber) and a 100-member Senate (the upper chamber), elected from different geographical constituencies for a five-year term. Sixteen of the 100 senators are appointed by the President and the rest are elected from each of the 12 regions, the City of Tashkent and the Autonomous Republic of Karakalpakstan. The last parliamentary election took place in December 2014, and the next one is expected to take place in 2019.
The assembly enacts legislation, which may be initiated by the President, parliament, the high courts, the Procurator General, or the government of Karakalpakstan. The assembly should ratify international treaties, presidential decrees and declarations of a state of emergency. However the President can dissolve the assembly with the concurrence of the constitutional court, the members of which are appointed by the President. The government of the current President has remained continually in power since independence in 1991. The President was re-elected in 2007 and then again in March 2015. Due to the death of the President in September 2016, early election was held in December 2016. The next regular election is expected for 2021.
The Supreme Court, Constitutional Court and the high economic court constitute the judiciary, with lower courts at regional, district and town levels. Judges at all levels are appointed by the president and those at the national level must be approved by the national assembly. Uzbekistan is divided into 12 regions, the autonomous Republic of Karakalpakstan and the capital city of Tashkent. The President appoints the regional governors.
The Constitution is the highest legal authority and is followed by the constitutional laws, codes, ordinary laws, decrees of the President, decrees of the Cabinet of Ministers and normative acts in decreasing order of importance.