United States of America
The Biden-Harris Plan to Revitalize American Manufacturing and Secure Critical Supply Chains in 2022
The administration notably indicates that it will invest in sustainable domestic production and processing of critical minerals, from rare earths serving in electric motors to carbon fibre used for airplanes. In parallel to this document, it announced plans to expand domestic rare earth processing, strengthen the National Defense Stockpile; update mining regulations to ensure sustainable and responsible practices; and issue recommendations for comprehensive reform of mining laws. The plan further charges the Department of Energy to investigate the feasibility of extracting rare-earth from mine waste. As part of the Mining Innovations for Negative Emissions Resources (MINER) Program, the Department is releasing a $44 million funding opportunity "to provide commercial-ready technologies that give the United States a net-zero or net negative emissions pathway toward increased domestic supplies of copper, nickel, lithium, cobalt, rare earth elements, and other critical elements required for a clean energy transition."