Overview and context
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Nationally Determined Contribution (UNFCCC website)
Tajikistan is a democratic, secular and unitary state, as established by the Constitution, which was adopted in 1994 (amended in 1999 and 2003). Tajikistan is a bicameral parliamentary democracy. The highest legal power lies upon the Constitution, and the supreme legislative body is the Supreme Assembly, which consists of the lower Assembly of Representatives and the upper National Assembly. The Parliament is elected for five years. The Assembly of Representative consists of 63 seats and is selected by direct elections. 22 seats are selected by proportional representation and 41 seats by single-seat constituencies. The National Assembly consists of 33 seats and 25 seats are elected by local deputies and 8 seats are appointed by the President. Former presidents are entitled to be life-long members of the National Assembly. The last parliamentary election for the Council of Representatives was in March 2015. The next election are expected to take place in 2020.
The executive power is vested in the President, who is elected every seven years for a maximum two terms. Laws and resolutions are adopted by a parliamentary majority vote, and laws are presented to the President for signature. Parliament adopts constitutional laws, laws and resolutions, the President adopts decrees and orders and the Cabinet of Ministers adopts governmental resolutions and orders. Laws can be turned down by the President within 15 days, but the President must sign if the two-thirds of the Parliament votes for the previously adopted decision. Presidential decrees are asserted by the Assembly of Representatives. The legal system is based on civil law, and therefore there is no judicial review of legislative acts. The Prime Minister and other ministers are appointed by the President, and the Parliament can override presidential decrees by a two-thirds majority. The last presidential election took place in November, 2013 also overseen by the OSCE; the next election will take place in 2020.