Overview and context
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The Slovak Republic (Slovakia) is a parliamentary democracy established in 1993 as one of the successors to the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic. The President (Head of State) and the Prime Minister (Head of Government) lead the executive branch; the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NC) forms the legislative branch. The Supreme Court is the highest judicial body and the Constitutional Court is tasked with protecting constitutionality.
The NC has 150 members elected for 4?year terms in direct, proportional representation elections. The last parliamentary elections were held in February 2016, the next elections are expected in 2020. Legislative initiative belongs to members of the NC and the Government. In general, constitutional laws (require ? qualified majority) and Acts adopted by the NC constitute the primary legislation, which has precedence over secondary legislation, including government regulations and resolutions, as well as decrees, declarations and measures adopted by different Ministries.
Draft laws (bills) introduced in the NC are debated and approved through three readings. The adopted bill is sent to the President of the Republic, who has the right of veto and can refuse to sign the bill on the grounds of faulty content and send it back to the NC for further debate. Otherwise, the bill is signed by the President, the Speaker of the NC, and the Prime Minister, and published in the Collection of Legislative Acts, taking effect upon publication.