The Republic of Senegal, which achieved independence from France in 1960, has a legal system based in French civil law and is a semi-presidential liberal democratic republic. The most recent constitution was adopted and promulgated in 2001 and has been amended numerous times, most recently in 2008. The President is the head of State, while the Prime Minister is the head of Government and both the Government and Parliament possess legislative power.
Senegal currently has a unicameral Parliament, the National Assembly, composed of 150 seats, 90 members of which are elected by direct and popular vote and 60 of which are selected on the basis of proportional representation from a list of political parties. All members serve five-year terms. The most recent parliamentary election was held in 2012 and the next election is due to be held in 2017. The legislature has periodically fluctuated between a unicameral and bicameral parliament, and has been unicameral since 2012.
The legislative process in Senegal is comprised of three stages: drafting of the text, parliamentary scrutiny, and presidential sanction. Laws regarding public finance and security have a special procedure, but ordinary laws all follow the same process. Proposals can be drafted by members of the Assembly or by the competent bodies of the various ministries of the executive power.
In the first phase, the draft text is evaluated by one of eight permanent commissions or a special committee of the Assembly, depending on the subject. Following initial passage, the text is included in the agenda of the plenary session and discussed amongst all members of the Assembly in a public session. Once approved or amended by a majority of votes, the final text is submitted to the general secretariat of the government and the President. The President has 15 days to sanction the new law, which will then be published in the official journal to enter into force.