Overview and context
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Nationally Determined Contribution (UNFCCC website)
Rwanda is a presidential republic with a legal system based on German and Belgian civil law systems and customary law. The president is head of the government and head of the state. The parliament is bicameral and comprises the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. The Senate has 26 members, some of whom are appointed and some elected for an eight-year term. The Chamber of Deputies has 80 members, who are elected for five years. The current legislature periods of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate are 2013–2018 and 2011–2019 respectively.
The constitution of 2003 is the supreme law. International treaties ratified by Rwanda come second in the legislative hierarchy, followed by organic laws (which require a special majority), ordinary laws (requiring a regular majority) and Orders by the President, Prime Minister, and Ministers.
The main legislative organ is the Parliament, although the President has legislative powers as well. Laws can be initiated by the Chamber of Deputies or by the cabinet. The president of the Chamber of Deputies then passes the proposals to a permanent commission. Proposals are debated in detail in the plenary session and then voted on. The President has the authority to request a second examination by parliament of organic laws and ordinary laws after they have been voted on. If no re-examination is requested (or after it has been re-examined), the President promulgates the law within 30 days.