Overview and context
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Nationally Determined Contribution (UNFCCC website)
Peru is a presidential republic made up of 25 administrative regions. The federal legislature is a unicameral congress, composed of 130 representatives who are elected by popular vote for five-year terms. The last election was held in April 2016, the next one is expected for 2021. National legislation can be proposed by the following: the executive branch (the President, elected by popular vote for a five-year term, the Prime Minister, appointed by the President, and the Council of ministers, also appointed by the President), members of Congress, the Judiciary, autonomous public bodies, municipalities or professional associations. Citizen groups and individuals are also constitutionally guaranteed the right to submit legislation to Congress for consideration.
When Congress passes a bill, the President may sign it into law within 15 days, or send it back to Congress for further review. Once promulgated by the President, the legislation is enacted and in force on the date of publication in the official congressional gazette, El Peruano.
Laws passed by Congress and signed by the President represent the strongest form of legislation. Supplemental legislation exists by the way of legislative resolutions, which are employed to ratify international treaties or specify and modify rules and regulations of existing legislation. Likewise the executive branch may issue a “supreme decree” (executive decree), which does not need congressional approval but does require the signature of at least one sitting cabinet minister. Much of the current legislation specific to climate change is in the form of executive decrees.
In 2002, the Congress passed the Decentralisation Framework Law, which decentralises fiscal planning from the central government to the 25 regional administrative governments, composed of a Regional President and a Council (both President and Council Members are elected for four-year terms), advised by specialised Co-ordinating Councils. Regional administrations are also responsible for implementation of federal laws.