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Federative (7 provinces)
Political Groups
LDC, G77
World Bank Income Group
Low income
Global Climate Risk Index

The annually published Global Climate Risk Index analyses to what extent countries have been affected by the impacts of weather-related loss events (storms, floods, heat waves etc.).

Published by German Watch https://www.germanwatch.org/en/cri
Share of Global Emissions
Laws, Acts, Constitutions (legislative branch)
Policies, strategies, decrees, action plans (from executive branch)
Coming soon
Court cases and tribunal proceedings
Climate targets in National Law & Policy

Latest Documents

, 2020

Published in 2020, the National Climate Change Policy replaces the previous 2011 policy, in part to more effectively give effect to Constitutional provisions guaranteeing the right of every citizen to live in a clean and healthy environment. The stated goal of the policy is to "contribute to socio-economic prosperity of the nation by building a climate resilient society." ...

, 2019

The Forest act of 1993 provides a framework to ensure an operational management of the forestry sector, ensure the development, the conservation and the proper use of forest products. The act also provides the policies for a cooperation in the conservation and development of private forest by managing the national forest in the form of government managed forest, protected ...

, 2019

This law was approved following the Shrestha v. Office of the Prime Minister et al. case mandating Nepal to take legislative action to be able to meet its commitments to the Paris Agreement.Chapter 4 set provisions related to climate change. Article 23 mandates the relevant ministry to periodically provide information to local communities about the impacts of climate chang...

, 2017

The National Urban Development Strategy (NUDS) provides a framework to face the urban challenges in the country.The NUDS in expected to: 1) enhance the national urban policy vision and facilitate periodic review and appropriate changes; 2) provide strategic directions for the Ministry of Urban Development; 3) define the scope of urbanisation and urban development and to th...

, 2017

The Biomass Energy Strategy promotes the biomass energy as reliable, affordable and sustainable energy resource to address the increasing energy demand of Nepal. The strategy establishes the following objectives: 1) to contribute to energy supply and energy security by generating energy through management of agriculture forest residues and organic wastes from municipa...

  • A sub-national project on REDD+ to reduce about 14 million tons of CO2-eq by 2020LULUCF: REDD+ | Target year: 2020
  • 49% GHG emissions reduction by 2030 compared to 1990 levelsEconomy-wide | Target year: 2030Source: Climate Act
  • 95% GHG emissions reductions by 2050 compared to 1990 levelsEconomy-wide | Target year: 2050Source: Climate Act
  • phase out coal-powered electricty generation by 2030 and by 31 December 2024 for power plants with an electric efficiency of less than 44%Energy | Target year: 2030Source: Law prohibiting coal in electricity production
  • CO2 neutral electricity production by 2050Energy | Target year: 2050Source: Climate Act

Legislative Process

The institutional structure of Nepal has been weakened through its recent experience of political instability. The king seized power in 2005, which preci­pi­tated the mass demonstrations of the People’s Movement (Jana Andolan), which sought a return to, and the further development of, democracy in Nepal. This occurred in parallel with the culmination of the Maoist insurgency, which ended in 2006 under the Comprehensive Peace Agreement. Rebel leaders demanded a move to republicanism, and the convening of an assembly to draft a new constitution for the Himalayan state. These events heralded the begin­nings of the constitutional reform process. Central to the facilitation of the reform is the Interim Constitution of Nepal, 2007, which replaces the 1990 Constitution of the Kingdom of Nepal. The first President was elected in July 2008.

The legal system is based on English Common Law. It adopted secularism as a key tenet of the constitution (and thereby declassified the country as a “Hindu Kingdom”). However, it retains some Hindu legal concepts. Despite the transition to a republic, the basis of the parliamentary system remains. There is now no Second House, the members of which were merged into the House of Representatives. As an interim document, the 2007 Constitution provides for the establishment of the unicameral Constituent Assembly (CA) and the preparation of the new constitution. There are 601 seats in the CA, 240 of which are elected by direct popular vote, 335 by proportional representation and 26 appointed by the Cabinet (Council of Ministers). The term of the CA is three years after the first CA meeting is held unless dissolved earlier. The CA dissolved in May 2012 after it failed to promulgate a constitution, and the second CA election was held in November 2014. President Ram Baran Yadav was elected in 2008 by the CA as the head of state. The presidency will last until the new constitution is promulgated. A Prime Minister is officially appointed by the President as the head of the Government. Prime Minister Sushil Koirala was appointed in February 2014.