Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. Political reforms in the 1990s expanded parliamentary power, and in 1996 a bicameral legislature was established. Responding to the Arab Spring movements and pro-reform demonstrations, King Mohammed VI proposed constitutional amendments in 2011. The electorate voted the amendments into law and a new constitutional text was enacted.
The 2011 constitution expanded the legislative power of the parliament. It maintained the bicameral parliament composed of a Chamber of Representatives with 395 members, elected by universal direct suffrage for ?ve years, and a Chamber of Councillors, elected indirectly by local and national electoral colleges, with a minimum of 90 and a maximum of 120 members, who are elected for six years. The parliament enacts national laws, oversees the government, and assesses public policies.
The king exercises his powers through Royal Decrees, which are part of the king’s discretionary powers in a variety of ?elds related to administration, legislation and other regulatory mechanisms. They are enforced as laws and constitute one of the most important sources of legislation in Morocco. There are two types of Royal Decree: those that allow the king to exercise his religious prerogatives and those related to his status as head of state. The constitution also distinguishes between decrees that are countersigned by the head of government and those that are signed only by the king.
The new constitution grants citizens the right to submit motions on legislation, but the conditions and under which that right can be exercised are established by an organic law. International treaties ratified by the Moroccan state supersede national laws.
The first parliamentary elections held following the adoption of the new Constitution took place in July 2011. The latest election for the Chamber of Representatives was held in October 2016, the next is expected in 2021.