Overview and context
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Nationally Determined Contribution (UNFCCC website)
The legislative process is defined by the 1985 Constitution, amended in 1993 by referendum. Guatemala has a unicameral legislative system, with legislative power delegated to the Congress of the Republic. The 158 Members of the Congress are directly elected through universal suffrage for a four year term, with possibility of re-election. The most recent election was held in September 2015, with the next scheduled for 2019.
The right of legislative initiative is attributed to members of Congress, executive bodies (the President), the Supreme Court of Justice, the Supreme Electoral Tribunal, and the University of San Carlos. Proposals are submitted to the legislative direction of the Congress and then addressed to a working committee. Following recommendation of the committee, the draft text is discussed at the plenary session, requiring three separate reading sessions. General laws require a simple majority of votes to be approved, but there are exceptions of decrees that may require higher majority of votes.
A bill passed in the Congress requires presidential assent and publication before it is enacted. After the process in the Congress is successfully concluded, the draft is submitted to the government. If it is sanctioned by the president, the law comes into force after being published in the Official Gazette. In the case of presidential veto, the Congress can overturn the decision by a two-thirds majority of votes and send the new law for publication in the Gazette.