Overview and context
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Nationally Determined Contribution (UNFCCC website)
Gabon is a Presidential Republic in which the legal system is based on French civil law. The Constitution, written in 1961 following independence from France, was last revised in 2003. It provides basic freedoms and guarantees the separation of executive and legislative powers.
The government comprises a bicameral Parliament composed of a National Assembly and a Senate. The National Assembly has 120 deputies elected by direct popular vote for a five-year term, whilst the Senate has 102 seats, with senators elected by municipal councils and regional assemblies for a six-year term. The most recent elections were in 2009 for the Senate, and 2011 for the National Assembly. The next Senate election was scheduled for January 2015 and the next election for the National Assembly is due in December 2016. The President is elected for seven years with no presidential mandate limitation.
Ordinarily, there are two legislative sessions per year, the first from March to June, and the second September through December. The Government and Parliament co-jointly hold the authority to propose legislation. Legislation initiated by the Government is termed a ‘bill,’ and must first be reviewed by the Administrative Court and approved unanimously by the Council of Ministers before entering one of the two houses of Parliament. Legislation from Parliament is termed a ‘private bill.’ Before debate in a plenary session, both types of bills are referred to the relevant committee of each chamber
The Gabonese Democratic Party (PDG) has been in power since 1968 and has had the most influence over Gabonese politics, both before and after the first multi-party National Assembly elections in 1990.