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Law No 2021-1104 on the fight on climate change and resilience

legislation type Legislative
Adaptation Framework
Mitigation Framework
Passed in 2021
The Climate and Resilience law adopts a number of conclusions emanating from the Citizen Climate Convention. It is a 305-article-long document that mainly focuses on consumption (articles 2 to 29), work and production (30-102), transport (103-147), housing (148-251), food security (252-278), the reinforcement of the legal protection of the environment (279-297), and climate and environmental monitoring (298-305).

In Article 1 of the law, the State reiterates its commitment to respect the objectives of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in accordance with EU 2018/842 regulation and the Paris Agreement.

Articles 7 to 22 on supervision and regulation of advertising restrict the exposure of products and services with an excessive impact on the climate, notably fossil fuels (2022) and high-polluting cars (2028). From March 1st, 2022, car manufacturers will have to display the CO2 emission class of the their vehicle in advertisements.

Transport-related measures include 1) the obligation for cities or metropolitan areas of more than 150,000 inhabitants to establish a low-emission mobility zone before December 31, 2024, 2) the banning of flights within French territory when the journey is also provided on the national rail network without a connection and by several daily connections lasting less than 2h30, and 3)  grants regions the possibility to create a road ecotax from 2024. Article 133 extends until December 31, 2030, the exceptional deduction scheme that benefit companies using vehicles heavier than 2.6 tonnes and that use gas (NGV, LNG, bioNGV and bioLNG), certain types of biofuels, electricity, and hydrogen.

The law amends article 101-2 of the Code for Urbanism to set a long-term objective of no further artificialisation of soils. It also creates an environmental labelling system.

Article 252 mandates public and private managers of school catering services to offer a vegetarian menu at least once a week.

Article 280 further creates punitive measures for "ecocide" crimes when infringements result in serious and lasting damage to health, flora, fauna or the quality of the air, soil or water.

On July 28th, 2022, Decree no. 2022-1077 was issued, resulting from article 249 of the Law. The Decree identifies territorial areas that are at risk from specific the natural hazards, as well as identifying the risk scenarios that must be studied by service and network operators.


  • Increase number of train journeys by 17% oby 2030 and 42% by 2050
    Transport | Target year: 2050
  • Cycling to account for 9% of daily commutes by 2024 and 12% by 2030
    Transport | Target year: 2050
  • A 15% reduction in nitrous oxide emissions by 2030 compared to 2015
    Agriculture | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2015
  • A 13% reduction in ammonia emissions by 2030 compared to 2005
    Agriculture | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2005
  • Carbon neutrality by 2050
    Economy-wide | Target year: 2050
  • In order to achieve the national objective of the absence of any net artificialization of soils in 2050, the rate of artificialisation of soils in the ten years following the promulgation of this law must be such that, over this period, consumption total space observed at the national level is less than half of that observed over the ten years preceding this date.
    LULUCF | Intensity target and trajectory target | Target year: 2050 | Base year: 2021
from the Grantham Research Institute
from the Grantham Research Institute
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