Overview and context
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Nationally Determined Contribution (UNFCCC website)
Egypt acquired full sovereignty from Great Britain and was declared a republic in 1953. The legal system is a mixture of French civil and penal law and Islamic law; however, following from the popular Arab uprisings that began in Tunisia in December 2010 and spread to Egypt in January 2011, Egypt’s government and legal system has been in a dynamic state of evolution and transition.
This evolution has seen two presidents removed from office: in 2011 President Hosni Mubarak resigned amid protests, transferring power to the military and the second, in 2013 when President Mohammed Morsi was removed from power amid public protests supported by the Egyptian Armed Forces (AEF). The current President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi was elected in May 2014.
The President is responsible for appointing a Prime Minister, who must form a government and win the confidence of the majority of the members of the House of Representatives within 30 days of his appointment. In the event that the Prime Minister does not win a vote of confidence, the President appoints a new Prime Minister nominated by the party or coalition that holds the highest number of seats in the House. The government and its ministries have the authority to issue administrative decrees. The President has the authority to issue decrees with the force of law; however, only if a House of Representatives has not been elected. Following the House’s election, it must approve Presidential Decrees within 15 days.
Before the uprisings, Egypt had a bicameral legislature, which was dissolved in 2013. The constitution was approved, by referendum, in 1970 and further amended in 1980, 2005, and 2007. In January 2014, a new constitution was approved by referendum, establishing a unicameral House of Representatives with a minimum of 630 seats, 600 of which will be elected and 30 of which may be appointed by the President, with all members serving 5-year terms. Last election was held in October 2015, next is expected for 2020.
Under the new constitution, both the President and the House of Representatives have the authority to issue and reject laws. The Cabinet, the President and the House have the authority to propose laws within the House. For a resolution or bill to pass in the House of Representatives it must have the support of an absolute majority of those members present at the time of the vote; provided that the majority is no less than one third of the entire House. Bills are referred to relevant committees for further review, pending the approval of the House. Legislation rejected by the House cannot be proposed again during the same session.
The President may reject laws passed by the House of Representatives and refer them back to the legislative body. If he does not do so within 30 days, the law in question takes effect. If he does refer the law back to the House, it can be re-approved by a majority vote of two-thirds its members.