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Federative (10 provinces, 3 territories)
Political Groups
World Bank Income Group
High income
Global Climate Risk Index

The annually published Global Climate Risk Index analyses to what extent countries have been affected by the impacts of weather-related loss events (storms, floods, heat waves etc.).

Published by German Watch https://www.germanwatch.org/en/cri
Share of Global Emissions
Laws, Acts, Constitutions (legislative branch)
Policies, strategies, decrees, action plans (from executive branch)
Coming soon
Court cases and tribunal proceedings
Climate targets in National Law & Policy

Latest Documents

, 2022

Exploring Approaches for Canada's Transition to Net-Zero Emissions, Long-Term Low-Emission Development Strategy from Canada in 2022

, 2022

Canada. 2022 National Inventory Report (NIR) French., National Inventory Report from Canada in 2022

, 2022

Submission by Canada: First Technical Dialogue under the Global Stocktake, Submission to the Global Stocktake from Canada in 2022

, 2022

Canada. 2022 National Inventory Report (NIR), National Inventory Report from Canada in 2022

, 2022

This plan is the first developed under the Canadian Net-Zero Emissions Accountability Act. It develops sectoral projections of emissions reductions to 2030 with a view on achieving net-zero by 2050, details the government's low-carbon strategy and announces $9.1 billion in new federal investments. The government notably states its objective of reducing methane emissions fr...

Legislative Process

The Parliament is the federal legislative branch and legislative assemblies are based on the British model. It consists of the Senate (105 members appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister) and the House of Commons (308 members elected for a maximum of five years). Representation in both chambers is according to population in the provinces. General elections are held on the third Monday of October of the fourth calendar year after the previous poll. They can also be called by the prime minister if the government loses the confidence of the legislature. The last federal election was held in October 2015 and the next is expected for 2019, unless the Governor General dissolves Parliament earlier.

The law-making process starts with a bill, which can be introduced in the House of Commons (C-bills) or the Senate (S-bills). Public bills may be initiated by a minister (government bills) or private members. Private bills are founded on a petition signed by those interested in promoting it and introduced in either chamber. Bills that seem to be both public and private in nature are called hybrid bills. Bills to appropriate any part of the public revenue, such as tax or impost, shall originate in the House of commons (“money votes”). A bill goes through certain formal stages in each House. The stages include a series of three readings during which parliamentarians debate the bill. Prior to the third and final reading, each House also sends the bill to a committee where members examine the finer points of the legislation. Committee members hear witness testimony on the bill, and then subject it to a clause-by-clause study based on the testimony. Canada retains the Sovereign of the United Kingdom as its head of state. All laws are formally enacted by the Sovereign “by and with the advice and consent” of the Senate and House of Commons. Once both Houses have approved a bill, it is presented for Royal Assent and becomes law (named Act or Regulation).

The Constitution divides the legislative abilities between the federal and provincial governments. Provincial legislatures may pass laws relating to topics explicitly reserved for them by the Constitution.