Overview and context
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Nationally Determined Contribution (UNFCCC website)
Cameroon is a unitary presidential republic. The President of the Republic is the head of the state. The Prime Minister is the head of the Government and is subject to prerogatives of the President. The legislative process is shared by the Government and the Parliament. The Parliament is bicameral, consisting of the Senate and the National Assembly. The Constitution, which was adopted in 1996, is the highest level of legal norm. The constitutionality of laws is determined by the Constitutional Council, which has 11 members, appointed by the President for nine years (renewable).
Under the Constitution, the Senate comprises of 100 seats, 70 indirectly elected by municipal councils and 30 appointed by the President. The first election for the Senate was held in April 2013 (five-year term), and the next election is expected in 2018. The National Assembly has 180 members, elected by direct popular vote every five years. The last election for the National Assembly took place in September 2013, and the next election is expected to be held in 2018.
The Constitution stipulates that the President and the Parliament have the power to initiate laws. Bills (and draft resolutions) can be submitted by the President to the National Assembly. Private Member’s bills (and draft resolutions) are initiated by members of the National Assembly, which are submitted in writing to the President of the National Assembly. Once bills are passed by a simple majority of the Members present, they are submitted to the Senate for consideration. The Senate may pass (and forward to the President for enactment within 48 hours) or amend (and return the amended bill to the National Assembly) the bills by a simple majority. In case of rejection, of all or part of the Bill, by an absolute majority of the Senators, it is returned to the National Assembly, which can pass the bill by an absolute majority after deliberations. Once the final bills are adopted by the National Assembly, the bills are forwarded to the President of the Republic of enactment. Laws are published in the official gazette in French and English.
The President has the power to change the terms of the legislature. In this case, the President asks for a second reading, in which case an absolute majority of all members of the National Assembly is necessary to pass the bill. International treaties and agreements are negotiated and ratified by the President, unless otherwise subject to authorisation of the Parliament. Laws are the only form that is reserved to the legislative power under the Constitution. Parliament can delegate competences to the President to issue Ordinances on selected subjects and Presidential decrees can be declared by the President and the Prime Minister.