Climate Change Mitigation Act
The Act integrates the already existing climate change mitigation related articles of the Environmental Protection Act, namely provisions on:
- the National Environmental Monitoring System (including the National GHG Inventory System), directed by the Minister of Environment and Water through the Executive Environment Agency, originally established by the EPA and related regulation
- the Greenhouse Gas Emissions Allowances Trading Scheme, for which the Minister of Environment and Water (acting jointly with other ministers) elaborates a National Allocation Plan every five years
- the National Trust Eco Fund, established in 1995 after signing a swap deal ‘Debt for Nature' with Switzerland and assigned in 2010 with responsibility for managing the funds received by Bulgaria within the Green Investment Scheme and other programmes
The Act further regulates instruments available under the Kyoto Protocol (Joint Implementation, CDM), administration of the national GHG trading register, and reduction of GHG emissions from fuels used for transport and energy and the voluntary emissions reduction scheme.
The Act also reaffirms the National Action Plan on Climate Change as the 'instrument which determines the framework of state policy in the field of climate change for each separate period of action under the policies of the European Union and international treaties to which Bulgaria is a party'. The most recent (Third) National Action Plan (replacing the second one published in 2004) was adopted in 2012. It provides for transition to a low carbon and resource efficient economy and includes measures to achieve the target of over 18.5% GHG emissions reduction by 2020 compared to the 2005 levels and 20% share of renewables in energy production by 2020.
The Act further establishes the National Expert Council on Climate Change as an advisory body to the Minister of Environment and Water. The Council includes representatives of the relevant Ministries, the State Agency for National Security, the Executive Environment Agency, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, the National Association of Municipalities and non-profit organisations, whose activity is directly related to climate change mitigation'.
The Act also mandates the Minister of Environment and Water and other competent ministers to draft, after consultation with the National Council of Experts on Climate Change, a national strategy on climate change adaptation. The adaptation strategy is to be prepared for not less than 20 years, with the exception of the first strategy to be drawn up for the period up to 2030 inclusive, and should be adopted by the Council of Ministers.
The Act sets the target of minimum 6% reduction of the lifecycle GHG emissions of liquid fuels and energy for transport per unit of energy by 31 December 2020 compared to the 2010 fuel standards. It provides for every supplier of liquid fuels and energy to the transport sector to submit to the MOEW by 31 March each year a verified report on the GHG intensity of products delivered the previous year. It also establishes coercive measures and administrative penalty provisions in case of non-compliance with the present Act.