Bolivia

Overview and context

Laws
6
Policies
10
Litigation cases
0
Climate targets
14

Region
Latin America & Caribbean
% Global Emissions
0.32 %
Global Climate Risk Index
45.33
Income group (World Bank)
Lower middle income
Main political groups
G77
Federative/Unitary
Unitary
Region
Latin America & Caribbean
Income group (World Bank)
Lower middle income
% Global Emissions
0.32 %
Main political groups
G77
Global Climate Risk Index
45.33
Federative/Unitary
Unitary

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Nationally Determined Contribution (UNFCCC website)
Legislative process
The Plurinational State of Bolivia adopted a new constitution by popular referendum in 2009 that prioritises popular democratic participation and affirms social, economic and political plurality. The government is divided into four branches: executive, legislative, judicial and electoral. The executive branch is composed of the President (head of state), Vice-President and the Cabinet of Ministers. The legisl
The Plurinational State of Bolivia adopted a new constitution by popular referendum in 2009 that prioritises popular democratic participation and affirms social, economic and political plurality. The government is divided into four branches: executive, legislative, judicial and electoral. The executive branch is composed of the President (head of state), Vice-President and the Cabinet of Ministers. The legislative branch is bicameral and consists of the Senate – in which 36 members sit, four representatives from each of the nine regional authorities (called departments) – and the House of Deputies – with 130 members, half of whom are elected by popular direct vote and the other half listed on the presidential ticket. Elections were held in December 2020.

Any congressional representative, the Vice-President, the President, the Supreme Court, or any citizen of the Republic may initiate proposed legislation, called law projects. Once a law project is passed in one house, it is debated and considered in the other. Both houses must pass the bill by a simple majority, and modifications must be resolved between the two houses by a conference committee before the President can sign it into law. Should the President oppose some provision of the legislation, he/she may return the bill with a written statement to the house of origin where the objections will be considered and passed with modifications (again in both houses). Alternatively Congress may override presidential objections or veto by a two-thirds majority vote in both houses.

Bolivia’s Constitution has supremacy over other laws in the country. Bolivia’s judicial power is comprised of a Supreme Court of Justice and other lower courts. Article 179 sets that “[…] Ordinary jurisdiction is exercised by the Supreme Court of Justice, the departmental courts of justice, the sentencing courts and the judges; the agro-environmental jurisdiction is exercised by the Agro-Environmental Court and judges; and the rural native indigenous jurisdiction is exercised by their own authorities.” For constitutional judicial enforcement, referred to therein as “constitutional justice”, the Constitution sets a Pluri-National Constitutional Court (Tribunal Constitucional Plurinacional) (art. 179). Article 196 (I) further establishes that the Pluri-National Constitutional Court is responsible of assuring the supremacy of the Constitution, exercising constitutional control, and safeguarding respect for and enforcement of constitutional rights and guarantees.
from the Grantham Research Institute
from the Grantham Research Institute
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