Overview and context
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Nationally Determined Contribution (UNFCCC website)
The Plurinational State of Bolivia adopted a new constitution by popular referendum in 2009 that prioritises popular democratic participation and affirms social, economic and political plurality. The government is divided into four branches: executive, legislative, judicial and electoral. The executive branch is composed of the President (head of state), Vice-President and the Cabinet of Ministers. The legislative branch is bicameral and consists of the Senate – in which 36 members sit, four representatives from each of the nine regional authorities (called departments) – and the House of Deputies – with 130 members, half of whom are elected by popular direct vote and the other half listed on the presidential ticket. The most recent elections were held in December 2014 and the next legislative elections will be held in 2019.
Any congressional representative, the Vice-President, the President, the Supreme Court, or any citizen of the Republic may initiate proposed legislation, called law projects. Once a law project is passed in one house, it is debated and considered in the other. Both houses must pass the bill by a simple majority, and modifications must be resolved between the two houses by a conference committee before the President can sign it into law. Should the President oppose some provision of the legislation, he/she may return the bill with a written statement to the house of origin where the objections will be considered and passed with modifications (again in both houses). Alternatively Congress may override presidential objections or veto by a two-thirds majority vote in both houses.