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Federative (6 states, 3 federal territories (of which 2 are self-governing) and 7 external territories)
Political Groups
World Bank Income Group
High income
Global Climate Risk Index

The annually published Global Climate Risk Index analyses to what extent countries have been affected by the impacts of weather-related loss events (storms, floods, heat waves etc.).

Published by German Watch https://www.germanwatch.org/en/cri
Share of Global Emissions
Laws, Acts, Constitutions (legislative branch)
Policies, strategies, decrees, action plans (from executive branch)
Coming soon
Court cases and tribunal proceedings
Climate targets in National Law & Policy

Latest Documents

, 2022

Australia's framework climate mitigation document sets out greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets by 2030 and by 2050. The Act provides for annual climate change statements, requiring the Minister to prepare such statements; and cause copies of those statements to be tabled in each House of the Parliament.The document further confers advisory functions on the Clim...

, 2021

 The Future Fuels and Vehicles Strategy sets out how the Australian Government will support a technology-led approach to reducing emissions in the transport sector. This strategy was published under the previous Australian Government.

, 2021

This plan sets out a roadmap for how Australia plans to achieve its target of net zero emissions by 2050. The plan is based on five key principles:1. Technology not taxes – no new costs for households or businesses,2. Expand choices, not mandates – we will work to expand consumer choice, both domestically and with our trading partners,3. Drive down the cost of a range of n...

, 2020

This document presents Australia's strategy to accelerate development and commercialisation of low emissions technologies. By focusing on government investment, it aims to make low-carbon technologies' cost "about the same as" existing high emission technologies. The government announced $1.9 billion in funding alongside LETS 2020. Since the release of LETS 2020, the gover...

, 2019

This document sets a vision for a clean, innovative, safe and competitive hydrogen industry and aims to position the country as a major player by 2030.

Legislative Process

The Australian parliamentary system is based on the UK’s Westminster system. The Federal Parliament is bicameral, consisting of the House of Representatives (the Lower House), and the Senate (the Upper House). The Senate is composed of equal numbers of representatives from all six Australian states, with additional Senators representing Australian Terri­tories (76 in total). Senators are elected for six-year terms. In the House of Representatives, the number of members of parliament per state is proportional to population (currently 150 members). Members are elected for three-year terms. The most recent election was in July 2016 with the next expected in 2019. Australia retains the Sovereign of the United Kingdom as its head of state. All laws are formally enacted by the Sovereign (Royal Assent) as a formality after passage through Parliament.

Proposed laws are called bills, and can be introduced into either House, except for bills that propose expenditure or tax levies (appropriation or money bills), which must be introduced in the House of Representatives. In practice, most bills are introduced in the House of Representatives. All bills must be passed (by a series of three readings) by both Houses to become law (Acts). It is possible for the Senate to block the passage of legislation even when the gov­ernment has a clear majority in the House of Representatives. In the case of parliamentary deadlock, the constitution allows the Governor-General (the Sovereign’s representative) to authorise a “double dissolution” election under specific circumstances, at the request of the Prime Minister.

Australia operates under a Federal system of government, with six states (formerly separate colonies) and two territories with considerable autonomy, defined areas of jurisdictional responsibility under the Constitution and separate Parliaments. This chapter covers only those laws and policies that are enacted nationwide.