Overview and context
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Nationally Determined Contribution (UNFCCC website)
Turkey is a republic based on democracy, secularism, social state, rule of and fundamental rights and freedoms. Legislative power is vested in the Grand National Assembly (GNAT), a unicameral parliament with 550 deputies elected for four-year terms. GNAT’s election system is based on proportional representation determined by the “D’Hondt formula”, a mathematical formula which involves the principle of highest average. A political party must have at least 10% of total votes to win seats in Parliament. Last general election was held in November 2015 (the next one is expected for 2019). The Assembly is responsible for the enactment, amendment and repeal of laws. The laws adopted by the Assembly are promulgated by the President within 15 days or referred back to the Assembly for further consideration.
The right to introduce bills belongs to the deputies and the Council of Ministers. The bills introduced by deputies are described as private members’ bills. Government bills must contain the signatures of the Prime Minister and all cabinet ministers. The Speaker of the Assembly designates the bill to be considered by a designated standing committee with relevant expertise, which issues a formal opinion to the Assembly before it is put to vote.
Once passed by the Assembly, the law is then transferred to the President. Then the law is sent to the Prime Ministry to be published in the Official Gazette according to the will of the President. Once published, the law takes immediate effect unless otherwise provided in the law. With the exception of budget bills the President may veto all or a portion of a bill, sending the legislation back to the Assembly for re-consideration with justification.
If the President does not approve the publication of the bill in part, the Assembly may debate only the articles that are not approved or the bill as a whole. The Assembly may adopt the text with or without amendments after this debate. If the Assembly accepts the law without amendment, the President must approve promulgation in the Official Gazette. If the Assembly accepts the law with amendments, the President has the right to send the law back to the Assembly.